The Difference Between Process and Thread

How the operating system is implemented determines the distinction between a process and a thread. Processes are often heavyweight programs, while threads are lightweight.

A process’s properties are kept in a data structure called the process control block. These characteristics include the process’s program counter, register set, stack, and data segment. The operating system uses this data structure to link virtual memory in process memory to physical addresses. The operating system returns the process’s allocated registers and virtual memory.

Threads all use the same address space, memory, and data segment. A thread is a separate segment of a process, but all threads in the same process share the same address space. This implies that process threads can interact with one another. They are also able to share system resources.

A thread is the smallest unit of a process. Threads operate in parallel yet seem to run sequentially. They may, however, be interrupted by a higher-priority thread. They may also share memory and file descriptors with other process threads. The operating system’s scheduler can also reschedule threads.

Threads are lightweight because they share common resources. They do not require memory initialization and do not have process overhead. They have direct access to the data segment as well. As a result, they are more efficient than processes.